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Carey, M. P., Jorgensen, R. S., Weinstock, R. S., Sprafkin, R. P., Lantinga, L. J., Carnrike, C. L. M., Jr., Baker, M. T., & Meisler, A. W. (1991). Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 13.09.20, from www.midss.ie Key references: Carey, M. P., Jorgensen, R. S., Weinstock, R. S., Sprafkin, R. P., Lantinga, L. J., Carnrike, C. L. M., Jr., Baker, M. T., & Meisler, A. W. (1991). Reliability and validity of the appraisal of diabetes scale. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 43-51. Garratt, A.M., L. Schmidt, and R. Fitzpatrick (2002) Patient-assessed health outcome measures for diabetes: a structured review. Diabetic Med., 19, 1-11. Trief, P.M., W. Grant, K. Elbert, and R.S. Weinstock (1998) Family environment, glycemic control, and the psychosocial adaptation of adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 21, 241-245. Trief, P.M., C. Aquilino, K. Paradies, and R.S. Weinstock (1999) Impact of the work environment on glycemic control and adaptation to diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 569-574. Primary use / Purpose: The Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS) is a 7-item self-report scale assessing the individual's appraisal of his or her diabetes. Respondents rate each statement on a 5 point Likert scale. The scale's author state that the ADS can be incisive as a relatively quick (5 minute) screening tool to examine a patient’s adjustment to diabetes or risk for noncompliance with a care regimen. The test is easily administered (written or oral form) and is simple to score and interpret. The smaller the total score, the more positive the appraisal strategy. Thus, lower scores are better. Background: The Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS) was developed and tested with 200 male subjects, two thirds of whom were taking insulin treatment with an mean age of 58 years. All subjects provided blood for routine monitoring of HbA1c, half the subjects completed the ADS as well as five other self-report measures, and the other half completed the ADS on three time points over the course of one week. No significant difference was observed between ADS scores for insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent subjects. The ADS has been used in studies parsing the effects of family environment (Trief et al. 1998) and work environment (Trief et al. 1999) on glycemic control and psychosocial adaptation in adults with diabetes. Psychometrics: The psychometric properties of the ADS are examined in Carey et al. (1991). Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.274 Scoring the ADS is easy: 1. Reverse score items # 2 and 6. ADS2R = 5 - ADS2 ADS6R = 5 - ADS6 2. Then sum all items, using the reversed scored items 2 and 6. Total score = ADS1 + ADSR2 + ADS3 + ADS4 + ADS5 + ADSR6 + ADS7 There is no manual. Interpretation is straightforward: The smaller the total score, the more positive the appraisal strategy. Thus, lower scores are better.

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  1. 9/13/20
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Carey, M. P., Jorgensen, R. S., Weinstock, R. S., Sprafkin, R. P., Lantinga, L. J., Carnrike, C. L. M., Jr., Baker, M. T., & Meisler, A. W.
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September 13, 2020

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Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science (MIDSS)

Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS)

People differ in their thoughts and feelings about having diabetes. We would like to know how you feel about having diabetes. Therefore, please choose the answer to each question which is closest to the way YOU feel. Please give you honest feelings – WE ARE INTERESTED IN HOW YOU FEEL, not what your doctor or family may think.
1. How upsetting is having diabetes for you?
2. How much control over your diabetes do you have?
3. How much uncertainty do you currently experience in your life as a result of being diabetic?
4. How likely is your diabetes to worsen over the next several years? (Try to give an estimate based on your personal feeling rather than based on a rational judgment.)
5. Do you believe that achieving good diabetic control is due to your efforts as compared to factors which are beyond your control?
6. How effective are you in coping with your diabetes?
7. To what degree does your diabetes get in the way of your developing life goals?

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