Keywords
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Table of contents
  1. 1. Clinical Trial
  2. 2. Routine Documentation
  3. 3. Registry/Cohort Study
  4. 4. Quality Assurance
  5. 5. Data Standard
  6. 6. Patient-Reported Outcome
  7. 7. Medical Specialty
Selected data models

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- 9/4/20 - 1 form, 3 itemgroups, 42 items, 1 language
Itemgroups: General Information, Meteoropathy Questionnaire, Meteoropathy Checklist
Mazza, M., Di Nicola, M., Janiri, L. (2012). Metereopathy Questionnaire (METEO-Q). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 04.09.2020, from www.midss.ie Key references: Mazza, M., Di Nicola, M., Catalano, V., Callea, A., Martinotti, G., Harnic, D., Bruschi, A., Battaglia, C., Janiri, L. (2012). Description and validation of a questionnaire for the detection of meteoropathy and meteorosensitivity: the METEO-Q. Comparative Psychiatry, 53(1), 103-106. Primary use / Purpose: To detect meteoropathy and meteorosensitivity (effects of weather changes) on both healthy and psychiatric individuals Background: The term meteoropathy derives from the Greek ‘meteora’ (things high in the air or celestial phenomena) and ‘pathos’ (illness, suffering, pain), and it is used to indicate every pathological dimension in some way related to weather conditions. This concept is referred to a set of temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and brightness. Meteoropathy can be considered a syndrome: in fact, it is represented by a group of symptoms and pathological reactions that manifest when there is a gradual or sudden change in one or more meteorological factors in a given area. Scientists claimed that middle aged persons, especially women are at greater risk of becoming meteoropathic, but even children are at risk. The most frequent symptoms are represented by an increase in depression, both mental and physical, weakness, hypertension, cephalea, a desire to remain indoors, increased susceptibility to pain in the joints and muscles, difficulty in breathing and a heavy feeling in the stomach. There may also be mood disturbances, irritability and symptoms in the cardiovascular system, such as palpitations or pain in the sternum. These symptoms last for one or two days. They begin to decrease once the weather has changed, but return if the weather changes again. When the changes follow one after another, the symptoms decrease in intensity each time, as a sort of adapting process occurs. There is a quantitative difference between the terms ‘meteorosensitivity’ and ‘meteoropathy’. Meteorosensitive are people biologically susceptible to feel the effect of particular atmospherical events on mind and body; meteoropathic are those individuals who develop a specific illness or a worsening of the existing diseases as a consequence of these climatic changes. The Metereopathy Questionnaire (METEO-Q) is a self-administered questionnaire for the detection of meteoropathy and meteorosensitivity. This is believed to be the first questionnaire designed to measure symptoms of meteoropathy. Psychometrics: The METEO-Q has been formulated to assess the sensitivity to climate changes and their impact on symptomatologic modifications. It consists in 11 items and a structured checklist aiming to identify the physical and psychological symptoms mainly related to climate variations. Items 1-5 quantitatively explore variation of mood related or caused by specific weather conditions (variations of mood in relation to the change of latitude; variations of mood in relation to atmospheric changes; variations of mood in relation to the brightness of the sky; variations of mood caused by the temperature changes; mood changes caused by the seasons changing), while items 6-11 explore qualitative effects of symptoms (degree of relation between symptomatology and the climatic change; tendency of disturbs to minimize or disappear when the triggering condition stops or when an opposite environmental condition comes up; eventual coincidence of these disturbs with other cyclical phenomena; presence of prodromical symptoms; interference with daily activities; uneasiness feelings induced by climatic changes). The checklist explores most frequently experienced disturbs related to climatic, atmospheric, temperature or brightness changes. For each of the 21 symptoms, individuals are asked to rate on the basis of a 5-point Likert scale rating from 0 (absent) to 4 (severe). Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.269
- 8/28/20 - 1 form, 1 itemgroup, 17 items, 1 language
Itemgroup: The Screen for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS) - Two Week Measure
Carlson, E.. (2012). The Screen for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 21.08.2020 from www.midss.ie Key references: Carlson, E. (2001). Psychometric study of a brief screen for PTSD: Assessing the impact of multiple traumatic events. Assessment, 8, 431-441. Caspi, Y., Carlson, E. B., & Klein, E. (2007). Validation of a screening instrument for posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of bedouin men serving in the israeli defense forces. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 517-527. Primary use / Purpose: The SPTSS is a brief self-report screening instrument for PTSD symptoms. Background: The Screen for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS) is a brief screen, not based on a single-reported trauma model, that may aid researchers and clinicians in identifying persons who have high levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Items for the SPTSS are designed to closely match the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD except that symptoms are not linked to a particular stressor. Items are written in simple, colloquial language making the instrument suitable for use with a wide variety of populations. Caspi et al. (2007) highlight several advantages of the SPTSS including its not linking the symptoms to a specific event, which allows it to be used with individuals who have experienced multiple stressful events, its focus on frequency rather than distress, which may increase its utility with individuals hesitant to report vulnerable emotions, its low reading level requirement, and the short duration required for administration. Several versions of the SPTSS are available and inquire about the symptoms experienced over the past two or one weeks. Each version contains 17 items and uses either a 10-point or 5-point frequency rating scale. Psychometrics: The psychometric properties of the instrument are examined in Carlson (2001) and Caspi, Carlson, & Klein (2007). Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.253
- 8/28/20 - 1 form, 1 itemgroup, 17 items, 1 language
Itemgroup: The Screen for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS) - One Week Measure
Carlson, E.. (2012). The Screen for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 21.08.2020 from www.midss.ie Key references: Carlson, E. (2001). Psychometric study of a brief screen for PTSD: Assessing the impact of multiple traumatic events. Assessment, 8, 431-441. Caspi, Y., Carlson, E. B., & Klein, E. (2007). Validation of a screening instrument for posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of bedouin men serving in the israeli defense forces. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 517-527. Primary use / Purpose: The SPTSS is a brief self-report screening instrument for PTSD symptoms. Background: The Screen for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS) is a brief screen, not based on a single-reported trauma model, that may aid researchers and clinicians in identifying persons who have high levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Items for the SPTSS are designed to closely match the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD except that symptoms are not linked to a particular stressor. Items are written in simple, colloquial language making the instrument suitable for use with a wide variety of populations. Caspi et al. (2007) highlight several advantages of the SPTSS including its not linking the symptoms to a specific event, which allows it to be used with individuals who have experienced multiple stressful events, its focus on frequency rather than distress, which may increase its utility with individuals hesitant to report vulnerable emotions, its low reading level requirement, and the short duration required for administration. Several versions of the SPTSS are available and inquire about the symptoms experienced over the past two or one weeks. Each version contains 17 items and uses either a 10-point or 5-point frequency rating scale. Psychometrics: The psychometric properties of the instrument are examined in Carlson (2001) and Caspi, Carlson, & Klein (2007). Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.253
- 8/21/20 - 1 form, 1 itemgroup, 17 items, 1 language
Itemgroup: The Screen for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS)
Carlson, E.. (2012). The Screen for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 21.08.2020 from www.midss.ie Key references: Carlson, E. (2001). Psychometric study of a brief screen for PTSD: Assessing the impact of multiple traumatic events. Assessment, 8, 431-441. Caspi, Y., Carlson, E. B., & Klein, E. (2007). Validation of a screening instrument for posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of bedouin men serving in the israeli defense forces. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 517-527. Primary use / Purpose: The SPTSS is a brief self-report screening instrument for PTSD symptoms. Background: The Screen for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS) is a brief screen, not based on a single-reported trauma model, that may aid researchers and clinicians in identifying persons who have high levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Items for the SPTSS are designed to closely match the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD except that symptoms are not linked to a particular stressor. Items are written in simple, colloquial language making the instrument suitable for use with a wide variety of populations. Caspi et al. (2007) highlight several advantages of the SPTSS including its not linking the symptoms to a specific event, which allows it to be used with individuals who have experienced multiple stressful events, its focus on frequency rather than distress, which may increase its utility with individuals hesitant to report vulnerable emotions, its low reading level requirement, and the short duration required for administration. Several versions of the SPTSS are available and inquire about the symptoms experienced over the past two or one weeks. Each version contains 17 items and uses either a 10-point or 5-point frequency rating scale. Psychometrics: The psychometric properties of the instrument are examined in Carlson (2001) and Caspi, Carlson, & Klein (2007). Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.253
- 8/19/20 - 1 form, 6 itemgroups, 9 items, 1 language
Itemgroups: Panic Associated Symptom Scale, Situational Panic Attacks with 4 or more symptoms, Spontaneous Panic Attacks with 4 or more symptoms, Limited Symptom Attacks with 3 or fewer symptoms, Anticipatory Anxiety, Phobias
Argyle, N. et al. (1991). Panic-Associated Symptom Scale. Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 19.08.2020, from www.midss.ie Key references: Argyle, N., Deltito, J., Allerup, P., Maier, W., Albus, M., Nutzinger, D., …& Rasmussen, S. (1991). The panic-associated symptom scale: Measuring the severity of panic disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 83, 20-26 Primary use / Purpose: Measuring the severity of the core symptoms of panic disorder. Background: The Panic-Associated Symptom Scale was the first scale of it's type to be published. It facilitates reporting and comparison between groups. It does not include measures of generalised anxiety symptoms and depression, but anticipatory anxiety and global phobia scores are included. Psychometrics: Referenced paper includes design rationale, scoring distributions, test-retest, correlations with other measures and within the PASS, PCAnalysis and response to drug therapy. Data are presented from a large study - n=1168. Other Information: Scoring is enhanced by use of patient diary. PASS is scored over the previous week's symptomatology. Scoring: Situational Panic Attacks with 4 or more symptoms: Number in last week=score: 0=0, 1=1, 2-7=2, 8+=3 Situational Panic Attacks with 4 or more symptoms: Average intensity=score: 0-3=0, 4-6=1, 7-9=2, 10=3 Spontaneous Panic Attacks with 4 or more symptoms: Number in last week=score: 0=0, 1=1, 2-8=2, 8+=3 Spontaneous Panic Attacks with 4 or more symptoms: Average intensity=score: 0-3=0, 4-7=1, 7-10=2, 10=3 Limited Symptom Attacks with 3 or fewer symptoms: Number in last week=score: 0=0, 1-8=1, 8+=2 Limited Symptom Attacks with 3 or fewer symptoms: Average intensity=score: 0-3=0, 4-6=1, 7-10=2 Anticipatory Anxiety: average% of waking hours in last week=score: 0=0, 1-30=1, 31-60=2, 61-90=3, 91-100=4 Anticipatory Anxiety: Average intensity=score: 0-3=0, 4-6=1, 7-9=2, 10=3 Phobias: Global Score=Score: 0=0, 1-2=1, 3-4=2, 5-6=3, 7-8=4, 9-10=5 Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.213
- 8/16/20 - 1 form, 1 itemgroup, 25 items, 1 language
Itemgroup: Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT)
Allison, C., Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, S., Charman, T., Richler, J., Pasco, G. and Brayne, C.. (2008). Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Q-CHAT). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 16.08.2020, from www.midss.ie Key references: Allison, C., Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, S., Charman, T., Richler, J., Pasco, G. and Brayne, C. (2008). The Q-CHAT (Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers): A Normally Distributed Quantitative Measure of Autistic Traits at 18-24 Months of Age: Preliminary Report. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Allison, C. Auyeung, B., Baron-Cohen, S. (2012) Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls Journal of the American Acad of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Primary use / Purpose: The Q-CHAT allows early detection of autism spectrum disorders, at 18-24 months of age. It is a quick measure containing 25 likert-type items describing behaviours a child may or may not engage in. Background: The Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) was developed in 2001 to allow health professionals to "red flag" a case for further diagnostic assesment. The Q-CHAT is a modified version which can be completed by a parent and also has higher sensitivity. It includes additional items on language development, social communication and repetitive behaviours. Psychometrics: Psychometrics are discussed in Allison, Auyeung, and Baron-Cohen (2012). Web link to tool and scoring: https://www.autismresearchcentre.com/arc_tests/ Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.180
- 8/15/20 - 1 form, 1 itemgroup, 10 items, 1 language
Itemgroup: The Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient - 10 items (AQ-10)
Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., Clubley, E. (2001). Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 14.08.2020, from www.midss.ie Author of Tool: Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J. and Clubley, E. Key references: M. Woodbury-Smith, J. Robinson and S. Baron-Cohen, (2005). Screening adults for Asperger Syndrome using the AQ : diagnostic validity in clinical practice. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35:331-335 S. Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, R. Skinner, J. Martin and E. Clubley, (2001). The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) : Evidence from Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism, Males and Females, Scientists and Mathematicians Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:5-17 C. Allison, B. Auyeung, S. Baron-Cohen (2012). Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls. Journal of the American Acad of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Primary use / Purpose: The AQ is designed to measure the degree to which an individual possesses symptoms typical of the autistic spectrum. It is a 50 item measure, while the AQ-10 is a ten item condensed version. Background: The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was developed due to a need for brief self-administered instruments to determine an individual's position on the autism-normality continuum. Psychometrics: Psychometrics are discussed in Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin and Clubley (2001). Web link to tool: https://www.autismresearchcentre.com/arc_tests/ SCORING: Only 1 point can be scored for each question. Score 1 point for Definitely or Slightly Agree on each of items 1, 7, 8, and 10. Score 1 point for Definitely or Slightly Disagree on each of items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9. If the individual scores 6 or above, consider referring them for a specialist diagnostic assessment. Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.174
- 8/15/20 - 1 form, 2 itemgroups, 54 items, 1 language
Itemgroups: General Information, The Adolescent Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)
Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R. A. Knickmeyer, R., Wheelwright, S. (2006). Adolescent Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 15.08.2020, from www.midss.ie Key references: Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R. A. Knickmeyer, R. and Wheelwright, S. (2006). The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) — Adolescent Version. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:343-350 Auyeung, B. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. and Allison, C. (2008). The Autism Spectrum Quotient: Children's Version (AQ-Child). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Primary use / Purpose: The AQ is designed to measure the degree to which an individual possesses symptoms typical of the autistic spectrum. The adolescent version is for ages 12-15 while the child version is for ages 4-11. Both instruments have 50 likert-type items with responses ranging from "definitely agree" to "definitely disagree". Background: The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was developed due to a need for brief self-administered instruments to determine an individual's position on the autism-normality continuum. The adolescent and child versions allow parents or therapists to complete this instrument on their behalf to determine the presence or absence of traits typical of autism. Psychometrics: Psychometrics for the adolescent version are discussed in Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R. A. Knickmeyer, R. and Wheelwright, S. (2006), and for the child version in Auyeung, B. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. and Allison, C. (2008). Both have shown favourable outcomes on measures of reliability and validity. Web link to tool and scoring: https://www.autismresearchcentre.com/arc_tests/ Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.175
- 8/15/20 - 1 form, 2 itemgroups, 55 items, 1 language
Itemgroups: General Information, The Autism Spectrum Quotient (Child)
Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R. A. Knickmeyer, R., Wheelwright, S. (2006). Adolescent Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 15.08.2020, from www.midss.ie Key references: Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R. A. Knickmeyer, R. and Wheelwright, S. (2006). The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) — Adolescent Version. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36:343-350 Auyeung, B. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. and Allison, C. (2008). The Autism Spectrum Quotient: Children's Version (AQ-Child). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders Primary use / Purpose: The AQ is designed to measure the degree to which an individual possesses symptoms typical of the autistic spectrum. The adolescent version is for ages 12-15 while the child version is for ages 4-11. Both instruments have 50 likert-type items with responses ranging from "definitely agree" to "definitely disagree". Background: The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was developed due to a need for brief self-administered instruments to determine an individual's position on the autism-normality continuum. The adolescent and child versions allow parents or therapists to complete this instrument on their behalf to determine the presence or absence of traits typical of autism. Psychometrics: Psychometrics for the adolescent version are discussed in Baron-Cohen, S., Hoekstra, R. A. Knickmeyer, R. and Wheelwright, S. (2006), and for the child version in Auyeung, B. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. and Allison, C. (2008). Both have shown favourable outcomes on measures of reliability and validity. Web link to tool and scoring: https://www.autismresearchcentre.com/arc_tests/ Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.175
- 8/14/20 - 1 form, 2 itemgroups, 54 items, 1 language
Itemgroups: General Information, The Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ)
Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., Clubley, E. (2001). Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 14.08.2020, from www.midss.ie Author of Tool: Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J. and Clubley, E. Key references: M. Woodbury-Smith, J. Robinson and S. Baron-Cohen, (2005). Screening adults for Asperger Syndrome using the AQ : diagnostic validity in clinical practice. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 35:331-335 S. Baron-Cohen, S. Wheelwright, R. Skinner, J. Martin and E. Clubley, (2001). The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) : Evidence from Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism, Males and Females, Scientists and Mathematicians Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31:5-17 C. Allison, B. Auyeung, S. Baron-Cohen (2012). Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls. Journal of the American Acad of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Primary use / Purpose: The AQ is designed to measure the degree to which an individual possesses symptoms typical of the autistic spectrum. It is a 50 item measure, while the AQ-10 is a ten item condensed version. Background: The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was developed due to a need for brief self-administered instruments to determine an individual's position on the autism-normality continuum. Psychometrics: Psychometrics are discussed in Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin and Clubley (2001). Web link to tool and scoring: https://www.autismresearchcentre.com/arc_tests/ Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.174
- 8/12/20 - 1 form, 7 itemgroups, 50 items, 1 language
Itemgroups: Explanation, During THE PAST WEEK, did you suffer from:, During THE PAST WEEK, did you suffer from:, During THE PAST WEEK, did you feel:, During THE PAST WEEK, did you feel:, During THE PAST WEEK, did you:, During THE PAST WEEK:
Terluin, B.. (2012). Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) . Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved 12.08.2020 from www.midss.ie Key references: Terluin B, Van Rhenen W, Schaufeli WB, De Haan M. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): measuring distress and other mental health problems in a working population. Work and Stress 2004; 18(3): 187-207. Terluin B, Van Marwijk HWJ, Adèr HJ, De Vet HCW, Penninx BWJH, Hermens MLM, Van Boeijen CA, Van Balkom AJLM, Van der Klink JJL, Stalman WAB. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ): a validation study of a multidimensional self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization. BMC Psychiatry 2006; 6:34. Terluin B, Brouwers EPM, van Marwijk HWJ, Verhaak PFM, van der Horst HE. Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). BMC Fam Pract 2009; 10:58. Primary use / Purpose: The 4DSQ is a self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization. It is mainly used in primary care. The 4DSQ helps to differentiate between normal distress and psychiatric disorder. Background: Many health care problems in primary care are stress-related (distress) and do not represent true psychiatric disorder (irrespective of whether DSM-IV criteria for depressive or anxiety disorders are fulfilled). Indiscriminate application of DSM-IV criteria in the primary care setting produces many false positive diagnoses confusing patients and misleading professionals. In health care practice the 4DSQ can be used to: - help patients acknowledge mental health issues when presenting with physical complaints, - assess the overall severity of the mental health problems, - detect depressive and anxiety disorders severe enough to require specific treatment (antidepressants or cognitive behavioral therapy), - monitor patients' progress under treatment. Psychometrics: The 4DSQ has been extensively tested for reliability and validity. Reliability is high (coefficients generally >.80). Factorial, critirion and concurrant validity has been confirmed. Web link to tool: Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) Other Information: The 4DSQ is free for non-commercial use. Available language versions: English, Dutch, French, German, Polish, Turkish Digital Object Identifier (DOI): http://dx.doi.org/10.13072/midss.167 Scoring: "no" = score 0 "sometimes" = score 1 "regularly" or more often = score 2 Distress: sum the items 17, 19, 20, 22, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 36, 37, 38, 39, 41, 47, 48 Interpretation: moderately elevated if > 10, strongly elevated if > 20 Depression: sum the items 28, 30, 33, 34, 35, 46 Interpretation: moderately elevated if > 2, strongly elevated if > 5 Anxiety: sum the items 18, 21, 23, 24, 27, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 49, 50 moderately elevated if > 8, strongly elevated if > 12 Somatisation: sum the items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 moderately elevated if > 10, strongly elevated if > 20